A royalty is a payment to a royalty holder that is typically based on a percentage of the minerals produced or the revenues or profits generated from the underlying project. With a stream, the holder makes an upfront payment or deposit to purchase a pre-agreed percentage of a mine’s production at a defined or pre-determined price. Royalties and streams are typically for the life of a mine, but streams can also be structured over a specified period or production interval. Royalties and streams are non-operating interests in the underlying project and therefore, the holder is generally not responsible for contributing additional funds for any purpose, including capital and operating costs.
Royalties and streams limit the holder’s exposure, in most instances, to exploration, development, operating, sustaining or reclamation expenditures typically associated with an operating interest in a mine. While they have limited operating exposure, royalty and stream holders do however benefit from any resource expansion or upside generated by exploration success, mine life extensions and operational expansions within the areas covered by the interest. A royalty and streaming business model provides greater diversification than typical mining companies. Royalty and streaming companies typically hold a portfolio of diversified assets, whereas mining companies generally depend on one or few key mines. Royalty and streaming companies therefore generally offer a relatively lower risk investment when compared to operating companies, while still offering potential upside to resource expansion and underlying commodity prices. We do not currently hold any stream interests but may acquire them in the future.